Theory and methodology of international relations
El'zeni N.K. —
The military intervention in Iraq (The Fake Call for Democracy)
// World Politics.
– 2023. – № 3.
– P. 1 - 14.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-8671.2023.3.40795 EDN: AZLXFX URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=40795
This article offers a comprehensive analysis of the 21st-century military intervention in Iraq, with a specific focus on the supposed «call for democracy», a premise that has been a subject of intense debate and skepticism. By examining the «Fake Call for Democracy» hypothesis, the author investigates whether the pursuit of democratic governance was the genuine goal of the invasion or a facade for other strategic interests. The analysis encompasses the historical context preceding the invasion, the chronology of key events during the conflict, and the immediate and enduring consequences of the attack on Iraq's political, social, and economic structures. It provides a nuanced understanding of the motivations behind international interventions, particularly when couched in the rhetoric of democracy promotion or human rights. The military intervention in Iraq stands as one of the most significant and contentious episodes of the early 21st century. From a lens of historical reflection, the «call for democracy» that justified the invasion is shrouded in controversy, debate, and criticism. The aftermath of the invasion has resulted in a precarious, deeply flawed democracy, defined by sectarian violence, economic instability, and political corruption, rather than the envisioned stable and prosperous democratic nation.
military intervention, political corruption, economic instability, post-invasion consequences, geopolitical strategies, human rights, democracy promotion, international interventions, fake democracy, intervention in Iraq
Challenges and threats to international security
Ilina E.V., Chipizubova P.A. —
Digitalization in the Middle East: a Threat to the Regional Security or a Way to maintain it?
// World Politics.
– 2023. – № 3.
– P. 15 - 30.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-8671.2023.3.38743 EDN: XRNYRT URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=38743
The article is devoted to the main threats and advantages brought by digitalization in the Middle East nowadays. The research problem of the article is "which influence of digitalization – positive or destructive – prevails in the Middle East and what prospects await this region in the digital sphere. The interests of key regional players in the cybersphere (Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Turkey, Iran, etc., as well as anti-systemic non-state actors), as well as regional and national initiatives in this industry, including "Peninsula Shield", "Vision 2030" and others, are analyzed. The scientific novelty of the study lies in a non-classical approach to security problems in the Middle East, namely through the prism of the digital sphere, taking into account its complexity and the multiplicity of its actors. The theoretical basis of the research is based on a neoliberal approach to world politics, in particular, on the concept of complex interdependence, since the authors rely on the postulate that the world policy sphere is inextricably linked with others, and also consists of a multitude of heterogeneous actors and connections between them. From the point of view of studying regional integration in the Middle East, the dominant approach is neofunctionalism, developed by E. Haas, in particular, the theory of "spillover". The research methods used are description, study of official documents and statistical data, situational analysis, comparative analysis, which made it possible to assess the key threats and prospects for regional security and their correlation. The authors conclude that the key threat to the region is the disunity of the main actors' interests and the associated possibility of political contradictions' aggravation. Nevertheless, digitalization provides the Middle East with such advantages as deepening regional integration and inclusion in international cooperation, the growth of soft power and the potential for economic diversification.
Peninsula Shield, regional integration, antisystem actors, cybersecurity, Middle East, Digitalization, Gulf Cooperation Council, soft power, Iran, Saudi Arabia